Chiller Applications and Knowledge Determine the Right Refrigerant

What are Refrigerants?

Starting with the basics, as explained on Refrigerant Recovery Machine, “the refrigerant is an element in the form of gas or liquid, which is used to cool down a particular area in the refrigeration succession.” Therefore it becomes very important to select the right refrigerant.

In other words, a refrigerant helps to capture heat and transfers it out of one space into another, changing from gas to liquid and then back to gas in the cooling process, also known as vapor-compression refrigeration.

History of Refrigerants

For anyone excited about the cooling process, like the J.C. Younger team, or anyone looking for a better understanding of refrigerants, and how to select the right refrigerant according to your needs history is always a good place to begin.

There is quite a lot to tell, and we’re excited to share an exceptional review from across the pond that would also help you to select the right refrigerant. “Refrigerants, Past, Present, and Future,” by S. Forbes Pearson.

As you discover, “vapour-compression refrigeration can be traced back to Professor William Cullen of Glasgow, who produced ice in 1755 by the evaporation of water at low pressure.” Interestingly, he is also reported to have used the refrigerant, “ethyl ether to produce a reduction in temperature.”

It is reported that “Jacob Perkins, an American citizen, took out a patent in 1834 on a vapour-compression refrigerating system using ethyl ether in a closed circuit.” Interestingly, his patent included “all the elements of the modern vapour-compression system; the compressor, the condenser, the expansion device, and the evaporator,” aka the chiller system.

It is interesting to note that “from this time there began a search for the right refrigerant, which has not yet been, and probably never will be, discovered.”

Types of Refrigerant

Referring back to the Refrigerant Recovery Machine, understanding the types of refrigerants is important in the evolution of the refrigerants and in understanding the selection of the right refrigerant that are acceptable and used today.

Synthetic Refrigerants

Synthetic means something is not natural, and it was eventually discovered that synthetic refrigerants are harmful to the environment, some far more than others.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were those first introduced due to their qualities being “non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-reactive.” These refrigerants were made up of “chlorine, fluorine, and carbon.”

“Upon realization that Earth’s ozone layer was being destroyed by the “leaks” of these gases into our atmosphere, they were “banned in the late 80s because of adverse environmental effects.” R12 was one of these refrigerants that were widely used.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are those refrigerants that contain “hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon.” These synthetic refrigerants proved to not have the threatening effect as CFCs, but another problem was discovered, “greenhouse gases.”

These gases are linked to “global warming,” as a result of the “greenhouse effect.” R22, an HCFC, is a well-known chiller refrigerant that is being phased out.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) “refrigerants do not include any particles of chlorine.” Even though these refrigerants are not a threat to our ozone layer, they do affect global warming. When “compared to other refrigerants, it has the lower potential of global warming.”

These refrigerants are used and are “in demand by refrigerant manufacturers because of its environment suitability.” R134a and R410A are two refrigerants that are widely used in the chiller industry.

Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Not only are we trying to avoid any further damage to our ozone layer, but we must also avoid producing gases to affect global warming. “In 1987, an international agreement banned production of certain chlorine containing refrigerants,” as stated on YouTube, “Selecting Refrigerants R12 R22 R134a R410A.” (This is an excellent and informative video.) Hence, the move towards natural refrigerants.

Natural Refrigerants

Natural refrigerants “have zero ozone depletion and negligible effects on global warming.” The best quality of natural refrigerants is that “they are quite inexpensive as compared to other refrigerants.” There are more natural refrigerants than you might think, and you can see the entire list on

Off the subject just a bit, and just in case you’re thinking about it. Krypton is not relative to the Kryptonite that paralyzes Superman. We thought it was a good time to mention it since we do believe we are the superheroes of the chiller industry.

The JCY Team Helps You Select the Right Refrigerant

We have given you quite a lot to learn and to think about selecting the right refrigerant in this blog. It is very important to us, at J.C. Younger (JCY), that we do our part to protect the environment, just like our superheroes. There is quite a lot to consider when determining the right refrigerant for an application.

The JCY team has been dedicated to manufacturing and remanufacturing chillers since 1956, and we have worked with the changes our environment’s sustainability requires. We’re here to answer any questions when it comes to selecting the right refrigerant to keep your application efficiently operating.

Just like all our superheroes, it doesn’t matter when you need us, we’re here 24/7 to take care of you.

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Warehouse Specialist



Trade Show Rep



Master Refrigeration Licensed | In Memoriam in Heaven


General Manager

Sam graduated from Dunwoody College with a degree in HVAC Service, and started out working in the resident side of work. After many years in the residential side of work, Sam took a chance back in 2018 to work in the commercial side of hvac with Jc younger. Since started working with them, Sam has been streamlining Jc younger to make the service side quicker at getting customer back to cooling right away. He always puts the customer needs first, giving them great customer service, and getting them back cooling right away. When Sam is not at work he enjoys hitting up breweries around the area, going up to the cabin, and doing remodeling projects. He also enjoys going out to lake of the woods for some good walleye fishing.In his free time he enjoys taking his grandmother out for meals, fishing and spending time with girlfriend and dog Sara.



Sandy has been in the background of JCY since a baby, growing up playing on chiller systems in the large 12,000SQFT pole shed JCY stores units in. Sandy started working at a young age doing simple tasks like sweeping, painting, organizing Copper fittings and other small tasks. In 2005 Sandy started his 4 year degree at Dunwoody College and graduated in 2007.

During his schooling their he also started his apprenticeship under his fathers supervision. The training consisted of installs of glycol piping in the field, building first chiller and assisting with Chiller service repairs. In 2006 he started learning the in and outs of breweries, and has been JCY’s brewery specialist since then. A challenge he took on was glycol piping a 30 bbl brewery by him self and completed that task in less than 20 day with 16 hour shifts.
In his free time he enjoys taking his grandmother out for meals, fishing and spending time with girlfriend and dog Sara.